Drunk Driving Defense, 5th Edition (2000)
By Lawrence Taylor

Contents  
Table of Checklists
Table of Forms
Table of Pleadings
Preface
Acknowledgments
Comment
xix
xxi
xxiii
xxv
xxxi
xxxiii
 
  I. Crime and Punishment  
 
Chapter 1 - The Offense
1:1
§1.0 The Nature of the Crime 1:1
§1.1 Elements of the Offense: Driving a Vehicle on a Highway 1:9
  §1.1.1 What constitutes "Driving" 1:10
  §1.1.2 Putting the Defendant Behind the Wheel 1:19
  §1.1.3 "Vehicle" 1:21
  §1.1.4 "Highway" 1:22
§1.2 Elements of the Offense: Under the Influence of Alcohol ("DUI/DWI") 1:25
  §1.2.1 Presumption of Intoxication from Blood-Alcohol Analysis 1:31
§1.3 Elements of the Offense: With an Excessive Blood-Alcohol Concentration ("Per Se") 1:38
  §1.3.1 Presumption of BAC at Time of Driving 1:42
  §1.3.2 Lay Expertise 1:42
  §1.3.3 Admissibility of Lack-of-Impairment Evidence 1:43
§1.4 Related Criminal and Civil Liability 1:45
  §1.4.1 Driving Under the Influence of Drugs 1:45
  §1.4.2 Felony Drunk Driving 1:51
  §1.4.3 Manslaughter 1:52
  §1.4.4 Murder 1:58
  §1.4.5 Civil Liability 1:62
§1.5 Inchoate and Accomplice Ability 1:64
  §1.5.1 Attempted Drunk Driving 1:64
  §1.5.2 Accomplice Liability 1:65
§1.6 Defenses 1:65
  §1.6.1 Necessity 1:66
  §1.6.2 Entrapment 1:68
  §1.6.3 Duress 1:69
  §1.6.4 Mistake of Fact 1:69
 
Chapter 2 - The Sentence
2:1
§2.0 Criminal Punishment 2:1
  §2.0.1 Prior Convictions 2:4
  §2.0.2 Other Sentence Enhancements 2:6
  §2.0.3 Ignition Interlocks 2:8
  §2.0.4 Vehicle Impound or Forfeiture 2:9
§2.1 Alternative Sentencing 2:10
§2.2 Multiple Punishment 2:15
  §2.2.1 Punishment for Both DUI and Per Se Offences 2:17
§2.3 Probation Violation Hearings 2:19
 
Chapter 3 - License Suspension
3:1
§3.0 Administrative Suspension/Revocation of the Driver's License 3:1
  §3.0.1 Probable Cause and Authority to Arrest 3:4
  §3.0.2 Proof of Driving 3:6
  §3.0.3 Failure to Give a Choice of Tests 3:6
  §3.0.4 Immediate License Seizure 3:7
  §3.0.5 Collateral Estoppel 3:8
  §3.0.6 Double Jeopardy: Criminal and Civil Punishment 3:12
§3.1 The Per Se Suspension (.08/.10 percent BAC) 3:24
  §3.1.1 "Zero Tolerance": .01 Percent BAC Suspension for Minors 3:27
§3.2 The Refusal 3:28
  §3.2.1 What Constitutes a "Refusal" 3:30
  §3.2.2 The Defective Implied Consent Advisement 3:33
  §3.2.3 Implied Consent, Miranda and the Right to Counsel 3:37
  §3.2.4 Physical Inability 3:43
  §3.2.5 Attempts to Cure a Refusal 3:46
  Checklist 1 The Refusal 3:49
§3.3 Suspension Hearings: Discovery, Procedure and Evidence 3:50
  Checklist 2 The License Suspension Hearing (Refusal) 3:59
 
  II. Pre-Trial  
 
Chapter 4 - Pre-Trial Procedures
4:1
§4.0 Initial Client Contact 4:1
  §4.0.1 The Interview 4:2
  §4.0.2 Educating the Client 4:6
  §4.0.3 The Retainer Agreement 4:15
  §4.0.4 Preliminary Investigation 4:15
§4.1 Analysis of the Case 4:19
  §4.1.1 The Prosecution's Case 4:19
  §4.1.2 The Defense Case 4:22
  §4.1.3 Conclusions 4:26
  Checklist 3 Evaluating the Case 4:27
§4.2 The Arraignment 4:29
  §4.2.1 The Defective Complaint 4:29
  §4.2.2 Double Jeopardy 4:31
  Checklist 4 The Arraignment 4:37
§4.3 Discovery 4:37
  §4.3.1 Objects of Discovery 4:39
  Checklist 5 Possible items for Discovery 4:61
  §4.3.2 Prosecutorial Resistance 4:62
  §4.3.3 The Discovery Motion 4:63
  §4.3.4 The Subpoena Duces Tecum 4:78
§4.4 Obtaining and Analyzing Blood-Alcohol Evidence 4:88
  §4.4.1 Preservation and Production of Police Sample 4:89
  §4.4.2 Secondary Testing of Client 4:103
  §4.4.3 Independent Analysis and the Defense Expert 4:110
§4.5 Prior Convictions 4:115
  §4.5.1 Striking the Prior 4:117
  §4.5.2 Priors from Arraignments En Masse 4:131
  §4.5.3 The Uncounselled Prior Baldasar-Nichols 4:133
  §4.5.4 Foreign, Juvenile and Nolo Priors 4:135
  §4.5.5 Bifurcation of Trial 4:138
  §4.5.6 Prosecutorial Burden 4:142
  Checklist 6 Prior Convictions 4:144
§4.6 Plea Bargaining 4:145
 
Chapter 5 - Suppresion of Evidence
5:1
§5.0 Probable Cause to Stop, Detain and Arrest 5:1
  §5.0.1 Lawful Arrest 5:6
  §5.0.2 The Citizen Informant 5:8
  Checklist 7 Probable Cause 5:12
  §5.0.3 Sobriety Checkpoints 5:12
  Checklist 8 Sobriety Checkpoints 5:24
  §5.0.4 Evasion of Sobriety Checkpoints 5:29
§5.1 Field Evidence 5:30
  §5.1.1 Verbal Field Sobriety Tests: Muniz 5:31
  §5.1.2 Nonstandardized Field Sobriety Test 5:33
  §5.1.3 Nystagmus 5:36
  §5.1.4 Preliminary Breath Tests 5:45
  §5.1.5 Videotapes, Audiotapes and Photographs 5:48
  §5.1.6 Erased Tapes 5:53
  §5.1.7 Police Obstruction of Witness 5:57
§5.2 Incriminating Statements and Refusals 5:58
  §5.2.1 Miranda and the DUI Case 5:63
  Checklist 9 Suppressing Incriminating Statements 5:70
  §5.2.2 Refusal to Take Chemical Test: Self-Incrimination 5:71
  §5.2.3 Refusal to Take Chemical Test: Relevance 5:74
  §5.2.4 Refusal to Take Field Sobriety Tests 5:78
  Checklist 10 Suppressing Evidence of Refusal 5:80
§5.3 Blood-Alcohol Evidence 5:81
  §5.3.1 Defective Implied Consent Advisement 5:81
  §5.3.2 Denial of Second Sample 5:83
  §5.3.3 Denial of Access to Counsel 5:88
  §5.3.4 Forceful Seizure of Blood Sample 5:96
  §5.3.5 The Physician-Patient Privilege 5:99
  §5.3.6 Noncompliance with Testing Regulations 5:106
  §5.3.7 Chain of Custody 5:114
  §5.3.8 Noncompliance with Discovery 5:118
  Checklist 11 Suppressing Blood-Alcohol Evidence 5:120
 
  III. Trial
 
 
Chapter 6 - Setting the Stage
6:1
§6.0 Jury Selection 6:1
  §6.0.1 The Right to a Jury Trial in Drunk Driving Cases 6:9
  §6.0.2 Discovery of Prosecution Records on Jurors 6:12
  §6.0.3 Illustrative Jury Voir Dire 6:16
  §6.0.4 Questionnaires and Propose Written Questions 6:33
§6.1 The Opening Statement 6:38
  §6.1.1 Illustrative Opening Statement 6:40
§6.2 Using Demonstrative Evidence 6:44
 
Chapter 7 - Field Evidence: The Arresting officer
7:1
§7.0 Field Evidence and the Arresting Officer 7:1
  §7.0.1 The Officer as DUI Witness 7:3
  §7.0.2 Preparation: Using Reports,
Articles and the DMV
7:8
  §7.0.3 Foundation : Training and Experience 7:10
  §7.0.4 The Judo Approach in DUI Trials 7:13
  §7.0.5 Audiovisual Evidence 7:15
  §7.0.6 Countering with a Defense Police
Expert
7:18
  Checklist 12 General Cross-Examination
of the Arresting Officer
7:20
§7.1 Observations of Driving 7:21
  §7.1.1 The NHTSA Studies 7:25
§7.2 Behavior and Appearance of the Defendant 7:27
  §7.2.1 Initial Behavior 7:31
  §7.2.2 Clothing and Grooming 7:33
  §7.2.3 Bloodshot Eyes 7:34
  §7.2.4 Flushed Face 7:36
  §7.2.5 Odor of Alcohol on Breath 7:37
  §7.2.6 Speech Thick and Slurred 7:40
  Checklist 13 Physical Appearance and Symptoms 7:42
§7.3 Field Sobriety Tests 7:44
  §7.3.1 Cross-Examination Techniques 7:49
  Checklist 14 Field Sobriety Tests 7:60
  §7.3.2 Preliminary Breath Tests 7:61
  §7.3.3 Pupil Reaction Test 7:67
§7.4 Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus 7:69
  Checklist 15 Nystagmus 7:76
  §7.4.1 Illustrative Cross-Examination on Nystagmus 7:78
§7.5 The NHTSA Standardized Field Sobriety Tests 7:90
  §7.5.1 Walk-and-Turn 7:94
  §7.5.2 One-Leg-Stand 7:98
  §7.5.3 Nystagmus 7:101
§7.6 Ten Cross-Examination Techniques 7:106
  §7.6.1 The Infallible Cop 7:106
  §7.6.2 Selective Recall 7:107
  §7.6.3 The Wedge 7:108
  §7.6.4 The Magic Memory 7:111
  §7.6.5 Xeroxed Symptoms 7:112
  §7.6.6 The Disappearing Sway 7:114
  §7.6.7 The Negative Pregnant 7:115
  §7.6.8 Reverse Impairment 7:116
  §7.6.9 The Rigged Scoreboard 7:117
  §7.6.10 The Bomb 7:121
§7.7 Illustrative Cross-Examination of Arresting Officer 7:122
 
Chapter 8 - Chemical Evidence: The Forensic Expert
8:1
§8.0 Blood-Alcohol Analysis 8:1
  §8.0.1 Alcohol and the Human Body 8:4
  §8.0.2 The Fallacy of the "Average Person" 8:9
  §8.0.3 Individual Tolerance 8:11
  §8.0.4 Women and Alcohol 8:14
  §8.0.5 The Rising BAC Curve 8:17
  §8.0.6 Retrograde Extrapolation 8:18
  §8.0.7 Eating, Smoking and Alcohol Metabolism 8:29
  §8.0.8 The Zinc Factor 8:34
  §8.0.9 Internally Produced Alcohol 8:34
  §8.0.10 Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) 8:35
  §8.0.11 Inherent Error 8:42
§8.1 Breath Analysis 8:45
  §8.1.1 The Blood-Breath Partition Ratio 8:49
  §8.1.2 Nonspecific Analysis 8:53
  §8.1.3 Testing During the Absorptive State 8:62
  §8.1.4 Mouth Alcohol 8:64
  §8.1.5 Hematocrit 8:71
  §8.1.6 Body Temperature 8:72
  §8.1.7 Breathing Pattern 8:73
  §8.1.8 Stress 8:75
  §8.1.9 Simulator Calibration 8:76
  §8.1.10 Used Mouthpiece 8:79
  §8.1.11 Ambient Air 8:79
  Checklist 16 Breath Analysis 8:81
§8.2 The Machines 8:82
  §8.2.1 The Intoxilyzer 5000 8:84
  Checklist 17 Intoxilyzer 5000 8:109
  §8.2.2 The Intoximeter 3000 8:110
  Checklist 18 Intoximeter 3000 8:123
  §8.2.3 The BAC Verifier/Datamaster 8:124
  Checklist 19 BAC Verifier/Datamaster 8:134
§8.3 Blood Analysis 8:136
  §8.3.1 Sterilization 8:146
  §8.3.2 Fermentation 8:150
  §8.3.3 Whole Blood Versus Serum/Plasma 8:152
  §8.3.4 Arterial Versus Venous Blood 8:155
  Checklist 20 Blood Analysis 8:156
§8.4 Urinalysis 8:157
  §8.4.1 The Urine: Blood Ratio 8:162
  §8.4.2 The Incomplete Void 8:164
  §8.4.3 Candida Albicans 8:166
  Checklist 21 Urinalysis 8:167
§8.5 Ten Cross-Examination Techniques 8:168
  §8.5.1 The Smart Machine 8:170
  §8.5.2 The Spiked Aspirin 8:174
  §8.5.3 Close Enough for Government Work 8:175
  §8.5.4 How Infrared Works—and Why It Doesn't 8:176
  §8.5.5 The Defective Warranty 8:178
  §8.5.6 RFI Magic 8:182
  §8.5.7 A Ton of Beer 8:183
  §8.5.8 The Invisible Breath Sample 8:184
  §8.5.9 Wonder Blood 8:185
  §8.5.10 Purple Urine 8:186
  §8.5.11 A Lot of Hot Air 8:187
§8.6 Illustrative Cross-Examination of the Expert 8:187
§8.7 The Defense Blood-Alcohol Expert 8:213
  §8.7.1 Illustrative Direct Examination of Defense Expert 8:217
  §8.7.2 Preparing the Defense Expert for Cross-Examination 8:227
 
Chapter 9 - The Lay Witness
9:1
§9.0 Cross-Examination of the Percipient Witness 9:1
  §9.0.1 Illustrative Cross-Examination of Percipient Witness 9:5
§9.1 The Defense Sobriety Witness 9:10
  §9.1.1 Illustrative Direct Examination of Sobriety Witness 9:11
  §9.1.2 Preparing the Sobriety Witness for Cross-Examination 9:14
§9.2 Should the Defendant Testify? 9:17
  §9.2.1 Preparing the Defendant 9:21
  §9.2.2 Illustrative Direct Examination of the Defendant 9:26
 
Chapter 10 - Summation and Jury Instruction
10:1
§10.0 Jury Instructions 10:1
  §10.1 The Closing Argument 10:11
 
  Table of Cases T:1
  Resources R:1
  Bibliography B:1
  Index I:1
 
 
Table of Checklists
 
Checklist 1 The Refusal §3.2.5
Checklist 2 The License Suspension Hearing §3.3
Checklist 3 Evaluating the Case §4.1.3
Checklist 4 The Arraignment §4.2.2
Checklist 5 Possible Items for Discovery §4.3.1
Checklist 6 Prior Convictions §4.5.6
Checklist 7 Probable Cause §5.0.2
Checklist 8 Sobriety Checkpoints §5.0.3
Checklist 9 Suppressing Incriminating Statements §5.2.1
Checklist 10 Suppressing Evidence of Refusal §5.2.4
Checklist 11 Suppressing Blood-Alcohol Evidence §5.3.8
Checklist 12 General Cross-Examination of the Arresting Officer §7.0.6
Checklist 13 Physical Appearance and Symptoms §7.2.6
Checklist 14 Field Sobriety Test §7.3.1
Checklist 15 Nystagmus §7.4
Checklist 16 Breath Analysis §8.1.11
Checklist 17 Intoxilyzer 5000 §8.2.1
Checklist 18 Intoximeter 3000 §8.2.2
Checklist 19 BAC Verifier/Datamaster §8.2.3
Checklist 20 Blood Analysis §8.3.4
Checklist 21 Urinalysis §8.4.3
 
 
Table of Forms
 
Form 1 Client Interview Questionnaire §4.0.1
Form 2 Client Interview Form — Condensed Version §4.0.1
Form 3 Attorney's Retainer & Fee Agreement §4.0.3
Form 4 Arrest and Booking Report §4.3.1
Form 5 Sobriety Examination §4.3.1
Form 6 Operator's Intoximeter 3000 Checklist §4.3.1
Form 7 Intoxilyzer 5000 Calibration and Maintenance Log §4.3.1
Form 8 Medical Release §4.3.1
Form 9 Police DUI Report §4.3.1
Form 10 Field Sobriety Tests §7.6.9
Form 11 Intoxilyzer 5000 Checklist §8.2.1
Form 12 Intoxilyzer 5000 Test Card for Recording Results §8.2.1
Form 13 Intoximeter 3000 Checklist and Test Record §8.2.2
Form 14 Manufacturer's Warranty for Intoxilyzer 5000 §8.5.5
 
 
Table of Pleadings
 
  Notice of motion to dismiss for double jeopardy, Points and authorities §3.0.6
  Respondent's interrogatories to petitioner §3.3
  Request for administrative review §3.3
  Accused's motion for discovery in DWI prosecution (blood test) §4.3.3
  Motion for order directing pre-trial inspection, Subpoena duces teum §4.3.4
  Notice of motion to preserve and produce blood Sample, Points and authorities, Declaration of Attorney, Order to preserve and produce blood Sample §4.4.1
  Order appointing independent laboratory and order to produce §4.4.3
  Order for appointment of chemical expert to testify At pre-trial motions and/or trial §4.4.3
  Notice of motion to strike and declare alleged prior Conviction or convictions unconstitutional, Declaration of defendant in support of motion, Supplemental points and authorities in support of motion §4.5.1
  Notice of motion to suppress evidence §5.0
  Notice of motion to suppress, Points and authorities in support of motion to suppress §5.0.3
  Motion for disclosure of prior jury service an information on prospective jurors §6.0.2
  Defendant's Questions to the Jury §6.0.4